Ebola virus Disease
Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes bleeding inside and outside the body. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding.
Ebola virus is the sole member of the Zaire ebolavirus species, and the most dangerous of the five known viruses within the genus ebolavirus.
Four of the five known ebola viruses cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates, known as ebola virus disease. The virus and its species were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) the country where it was first described and was at first suspected to be a new “strain” of the closely related Marburg virus. This virus (but not its species) was renamed to “ebola virus” in 2010 to avoid confusion.
The species is a virological taxon species included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae (whose members are called Filovirus, order Mononegavirales. Its natural reservoir is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans, through body fluids.
The EBOV genome is approximately 19,000 base pairs long. It encodes seven structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24, and RNA polymerase (L). The Ebola Virus genetics is difficult to study due to the virulent nature of the virus.
Key facts about Ebola Virus
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%.
Ebola virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus.
Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.
Genus Ebolavirus is 1 of 3 members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus), along with genus Marburgvirus and genus Cuevavirus. Genus
Ebolavirus comprises 5 Distinct Species
Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)
Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)
Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)
Tai Forest ebolavirus (TAFV)
Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
BDBV, EBOV, and SUDV have been associated with large Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks in Africa, whereas RESTV and TAFV have not. The RESTV species, found in Philippines and the People’s Republic of China, can infect humans, but no illness or death in humans from this species has been reported to date.