Javascript Online Training Institutes

What is Javascript :

Javascript is a dynamic computer programming language. It is lightweight and most commonly used as a part of web pages, whose implementations allow client-side script to interact with the user and make dynamic pages. It is an interpreted programming language with object-oriented capabilities.

JavaScript was first known as LiveScript, but Netscape changed its name to JavaScript, possibly because of the excitement being generated by Java. JavaScript made its  first appearance in Netscape 2.0 in 1995 with the name LiveScript. The general-purpose core of the language has been embedded in Netscape, Internet Explorer, and other web browsers.

History of javascript :

All web pages were static when the World Wide Web was first created in the early 1990s. You saw exactly what the page was setup to show you, and there was no way for you to interact with it.

JavaScript, not to be confused with Java, was created in 10 days in May 1995 by Brendan Eich, then working at Netscape and now of Mozilla. JavaScript was not always known as JavaScript: the original name was Mocha, a name chosen by Marc Andreessen, founder of Netscape. In September of 1995 the name was changed to LiveScript, then in December of the same year, upon receiving a trademark license from Sun, the name JavaScript was adopted. This was somewhat of a marketing move at the time, with Java being very popular around then.

In 1996 – 1997 JavaScript was taken to ECMA to carve out a standard specification, which other browser vendors could then implement based on the work done at Netscape. The work done over this period of time eventually led to the official release of ECMA-262 Ed.1: ECMAScript is the name of the official standard, with JavaScript being the most well known of the implementations.

The standards process continued in cycles, with releases of ECMAScript 2 in 1998 and ECMAScript 3 in 1999, which is the baseline for modern day JavaScript. The “JS2” or “original ES4” work led by Waldemar Horwat (then of Netscape, now at Google) started in 2000 and at first, Microsoft seemed to participate and even implemented some of the proposals in their JScript.net language.

Over time it was clear though that Microsoft had no intention of cooperating or implementing proper JS in IE, even though they had no competing proposal and they had a partial (and diverged at this point) implementation on the .NET server side. So by 2003 the JS2/original-ES4 work was mothballed.

The next major event was in 2005, with two major happenings in JavaScript’s history. First, Brendan Eich and Mozilla rejoined Ecma as a not-for-profit member and work started on E4X, ECMA-357, which came from ex-Microsoft employees at BEA (originally acquired as Crossgain). This led to working jointly with Macromedia, who were implementing E4X in ActionScript 3(ActionScript 3 was a fork of Waldemar’s JS2/original-ES4 work).

So, along with Macromedia (later acquired by Adobe), work restarted on ECMAScript 4 with the goal of standardizing what was in AS3 and implementing it in SpiderMonkey. To this end, Adobe released the “AVM2”, code named Tamarin, as an open source project. But Tamarin and AS3 were too different from web JavaScript to converge, as was realized by the parties in 2007 and 2008.

Alas, there was still turmoil between the various players; Doug Crockford — then at Yahoo! — joined forces with Microsoft in 2007 to oppose ECMAScript 4, which led to the ECMAScript 3.1 effort.

While all of this was happening the open source and developer communities set to work to revolutionize what could be done with JavaScript. This community effort was sparked in 2005 when Jesse James Garrett released a white paper in which he coined the term Ajax, and described a set of technologies, of which JavaScript was the backbone, used to create web applications where data can be loaded in the background, avoiding the need for full page reloads and resulting in more dynamic applications. This resulted in a renaissance period of JavaScript usage spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them, with libraries such as Prototype, jQuery, Dojo and Mootools and others being released.

In July of 2008 the disparate parties on either side came together in Oslo. This led to the eventual agreement in early 2009 to rename ECMAScript 3.1 to ECMAScript 5 and drive the language forward using an agenda that is known as Harmony.

Advantages of javascript :

Javascript is executed on the client side :

This means that the code is executed on the user’s processor instead of the web server thus saving bandwidth and strain on the web server.

Javascript is a relatively easy language :

The Javascript language is relatively easy to learn and comprises of syntax that is close to English. It uses the DOM model that provides plenty of prewritten functionality to the various objects on pages making it a breeze to develop a script to solve a custom purpose.

Javascript is relatively fast to the end user :

As the code is executed on the user’s computer, results and processing is completed almost instantly depending on the task (tasks in javascript on web pages are usually simple so as to prevent being a memory hog) as it does not need to be processed in the site’s web server and sent back to the user consuming local as well as server bandwidth.

Extended functionality to web pages :

Third party add-ons like Greasemonkey enable Javascript developers to write snippets of Javascript which can execute on desired web pages to extend its functionality. If you use a website and require a certain feature to be included, you can write it yourself and use an add-on like Greasemonkey to implement it on the web page.

Less server interaction ?

You can validate user input before sending the page off to the server. This saves server traffic, which means less load on your server.

Immediate feedback to the visitors ?

They don’t have to wait for a page reload to see if they have forgotten to enter something.

Increased interactivity ?

You can create interfaces that react when the user hovers over them with a mouse or activates them via the keyboard.

Richer interfaces ?

You can use JavaScript to include such items as drag-and-drop components and sliders to give a Rich Interface to your site visitors.


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