Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers
1) What makes a good test engineer?
A) A good test engineer has a ‘test to break’ attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both technical and non-technical people is useful. Judgment skills are needed to assess high-risk areas of an application on which to focus testing efforts when time is limited.
2) What makes a good Software QA engineer?
A) The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization. Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see ‘what’s missing’ is important for inspections and reviews.
3) What’s the role of documentation in QA?
A) Critical. QA practices should be documented such that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented. There should ideally be a system for easily finding and obtaining documents and determining what documentation will have a particular piece of information. Change management for documentation should be used if possible.
4) What is ‘configuration management’?
A) Configuration management covers the processes used to control, coordinate, and track: code, requirements, documentation, problems, change requests, designs, tools/compilers/libraries/patches, changes made to them, and who makes the changes.
5) What does black-box testing mean at the unit, integration, and system levels?
A) Tests for each software requirement using Equivalence Class Partitioning, Boundary Value Testing, and more Test cases for system software requirements using the Trace Matrix, Cross-functional Testing, Decision Tables, and more Test cases for system integration for configurations, manual operations, etc.
6) What if the project isn’t big enough to justify extensive testing?
A) Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the same considerations as described previously in ‘What if there isn’t enough time for thorough testing?’ apply. The tester might then do ad hoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.
7) How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?
A) Well engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary, white-box testing can be oriented to the application’s objects. If the application was well-designed this can simplify test design.
8) What is ‘Software Quality Assurance’?
A) Software QA involves the entire software development PROCESS – monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to ‘prevention’.
9) What is ‘Software Testing’?
A) Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn’t or things don’t happen when they should. It is oriented to ‘detection’.
Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they’re the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organization’s size and business structure.
10) What is verification? validation?
A) Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The term ‘IV & V’ refers to Independent Verification and Validation.